English Arts and Crafts

1860’s – 1910’s

The Arts and Crafts Movement, a reform development in England, strives to change the working conditions of craftsmen while improving the quality of design. It emphasizes preindustrial values and medieval-like craft guilds in the midst of rapid industrial growth centered on machine production.

Arts and Crafts architecture illustrates a variety of expressions produced by individualist architects who believe in freedom of expression and frequently experiment with form and materials. Buildings exhibit no imposed style, but appear to grow out of the surrounding landscape and to have been there for centuries.

FOOL, YOU BETTER REMEMBER THESE:
1. Types: country houses, churches, row houses and single-family houses.
2. Unity and harmony between buildings and the landscape are important concepts.
3. Layouts grow from use not arranged order.
4. These houses have deep roofs with broad overhangs, horizontal windows, white stucco facades with dark trim and no applied ornament, a verandah, and bay windwos that face the landscape.






























Furniture
Arts and Crafts displays similar concepts to architecture and interiors, including revealed structure, truth of and delight in materials, and compositions based upon vernacular or traditional forms.
Types: Some medieval types, such as settles or dressers, are reintroduced.
Relationships: emphasize simplicity, revealed structure, suitability to purpose, and excellent craftsmanship.
Seating: Wood chairs with and without arms are common. Ladderbacks are favored and individual designers adapt these forms to their own design.
Design Spotlight: Remember the armchair upholstered in a “Bird” woolen tapestry with ebonized wood, the Sussex chair, and the Saville armchair…all of which have images below.





Symbols and Motifs:
Typical motifs of the period are sunflowers, lilies, birds, images and letters from medieval manuscripts, Gothic details, and Oriental images.


Decorative Arts:
Designers advocate craft or handmade decorative arts, not only English, but Indian, Japanese, Chinese, Persian, and other cultures. Evident in Arts and Crafts rooms are historic textiles produced with natural dyes, handmade ceramics, metalwork, and wooden objects. The crafts of embroidery and book binding are revived.







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