The Shingle Style, unique to architecture in the United States, evolves from architects’ explorations of New England’s Colonial architecture combined with aspects of the English Queen Anne Style. Buildings are irregular, rambling, picturesque, and covered with wood shingles.
The American Arts and Crafts Movement follows the principles and tenets of the English Arts and Crafts Movement, but interprets them in a more individualistic way and integrates more diverse influences.
Buildings and facts about the Shingle Style:
1. grows out of Colonial architecture
2. types: largely residential, and often defines hotels and retail buildings
3. buildings are located in natural settings with open space and expansive views
4. Floor plans are usually large and rambling and center on a stair hall
5. facades are asymmetrical, horizontal and quieter with fewer textures
6. entry doors are usually recessed in the porch with side lights
7. roofs are gable or gambrel roofs with dormers
8. Look for these features: irregular roofline, steeply pitched roof, windows in groups of three or more, shingles that unify the facade, large porches, and projecting bay or tower.
Buildings and facts about the American Arts and Crafts Movement:
1. derives from English principles
2. three types of houses: Craftsman Houses, Prairie Houses, and Bungalow Houses.
3. Craftsman Houses: by Gustav Stickley – follow his philosophy of simple structure and naturalism
4. Prairie Houses: by Frank Lloyd Wright – follow his admiration of nature and the art and architecture of Japan.
5. Bungalow Houses: by Henry and Charles Greene – follow a carpenter approach to design with exquisite craftsmanship inside and out.
6. single-family houses, hotels, churches and clubs.
7. buildings relate to their environment through use of materials
Like architecture, Arts and Crafts furniture may be designed by architects, such as Wright or the Greene brothers, for total environments, or mass-produced in factories like Stickley’s, or handcrafted in cooperative or utopian communities such as Roycroft.
Most furniture displays honest use of materials, sturctural emphasis, and rectangular shapes.
Look at these examples of each:
Symbols and Motifs:
Motifs of the period are flowers, trees, foliage, animals, geometric motifs, Gothic details, and Oriental images.
Arts and Crafts rooms usually have fewer decorative accessories than in other styles. Guilds, cooperatives, and manufacturers turn out numerous accessories, including pottery, glass, metal work, baskets, and embroidery. However, many objects are handmade by artisans or members of the household.